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webOS Fundamentals III - HTML, CSS and JavaScript

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webOS Fundamentals III - HTML, CSS and JavaScript
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webOS skill level: Beginner
Technologies covered: HTML, CSS, Javascript
Prerequisite knowledge: Intermediate-level HTML, CSS, and Javascript

This tutorial is for HTML, CSS and Javascript gurus. We're starting to get to the level at which people stop writing "tutorials", so parts of this tutorial will look more like a reference manual. But you're used to looking at reference manuals by now, no? ;)

As mentioned in the basic tutorials, although the webOS SDK hasn't yet been released,Palm has statedthat the Mojo application framework is "based on the HTML5, CSS and JavaScript standards that web developers already know and love". By maximizing our skills with these technologies, we can hit the ground running when the webOS SDK is released.

HTML 5

There's probably not much you need to know about HTML that you don't already know at this point. But it's interesting that Palm said that Mojo would be based on HTML 5, which hasn't even been finalized yet.

So what can we learn about HTML 5? What's new? This document is a good place to start:

HTML 5 differences from HTML 4 (Working Draft)

There are a few technical differences in syntax, character encoding, doctype, etc. But what you really want to get out of this article is the new language elements and attributes. These include interesting elements such as:

  • section represents a generic document or application section. It can be used together with h1-h6 to indicate the document structure.

  • article represents an independent piece of content of a document, such as a blog entry or newspaper article.

  • aside represents a piece of content that is only slightly related to the rest of the page.

  • header represents the header of a section.

  • footer represents a footer for a section and can contain information about the author, copyright information, et cetera.

  • nav represents a section of the document intended for navigation.

  • dialog can be used to mark up a conversation like this:

    <dialog>
          <dt> Costello
          <dd> Look, you gotta first baseman?
          <dt> Abbott
          <dd> Certainly.
          <dt> Costello
          <dd> Who's playing first?
          <dt> Abbott
          <dd> That's right.
          <dt> Costello
          <dd> When you pay off the first baseman every month, who gets the money?
          <dt> Abbott
          <dd> Every dollar of it. 
    </dialog>
  • figure can be used to associate a caption together with some embedded content, such as a graphic or video:

    <figure> <video src="/ogg"></video> <legend>Example</legend> </figure>
  • audio and video for multimedia content. Both provide an API so application authors can script their own user interface, but there is also a way to trigger a user interface provided by the user agent. source elements are used together with these elements if there are multiple streams available of different types.

  • embed is used for plugin content.

  • mark represents a run of marked text.

  • meter represents a measurement, such as disk usage.

  • time represents a date and/or time.

  • canvas is used for rendering dynamic bitmap graphics on the fly, such as graphs, games, et cetera.

  • command represents a command the user can invoke.

  • datagrid represents an interactive representation of a tree list or tabular data.

  • details represents additional information or controls which the user can obtain on demand.

  • datalist together with the a new list attribute for input is used to make comboboxes:

    <input list="browsers">
    <datalist id="browsers">
    <option value="Safari">
    <option value="Internet Explorer">
    <option value="Opera">
    <option value="Firefox">
    </datalist>
  • The datatemplaterule and nest elements provide a templating mechanism for HTML.

  • event-source is used to "catch" server sent events.

  • output represents some type of output, such as from a calculation done through scripting.

  • progress represents a completion of a task, such as downloading or when performing a series of expensive operations.

  • The rubyrt and rb elements allow for marking up ruby annotations.

The input element's type attribute now has the following new values:

  • datetime

  • datetime-local

  • date

  • month

  • week

  • time

  • number

  • range

  • email

  • url

The idea of these new types is that the user agent can provide the user interface, such as a calendar date picker or integration with the user's address book and submit a defined format to the server. It gives the user a better experience as his input is checked before sending it to the server meaning there is less time to wait for feedback.

HTML 5 also includes new attributes that you'll want to check out (for brevity, I won't reproduce them here). Some elements also have changed meanings and some have been deleted entirely. Check out the Changed Elements and Absent Elements sections for details.



 

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